Rapid Assessment of Critical Market Systems - Methodology ?

Reply on DGroups | 9 comments

30 Apr 2020, 1:24 p.m.

Mary Morgan

Thanks so much Karri and Aschalew for some great resources! Appreciate it!
cheers
mary

Mary Morgan
225-7575 Duncan Street
Powell River, BC V8A 5L1
Cell: 604-314-8376
Email: [Hidden email] <mailto:[Hidden email]>

24 Apr 2020, 8:43 p.m.

Aschalew Feleke

Dears,
Given the speed at which the pandemic spreads and restrictions of movement by Governments, it is almost impossible to collect market and food security information through the traditional face-to-face methodology. World Food Programme has introduced  mobile-Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping (mVAM) tool to collect market and food security data from traders and households in difficult situation to access.  I am just sharing with  you attached decision tree tools to introduce the mVAM for data collection.

Regards 
Aschalew Feleke
On Tuesday, April 21, 2020, 06:51:15 PM GMT+3, [Hidden email] <[Hidden email]<div class="original_message_link">Original message
> wrote:

Great resource Mary! It reminded me about this guidance on doing phone surveys, which came up in an M&E webinar I attended: https://www.povertyactionlab.org/blog/3-20-20/best-practices-conducting-phone-surveys. Might be useful with other resources too...Karri
On Tue, Apr 21, 2020 at 2:23 PM Mary Morgan <[Hidden email]> wrote:

P.S.Here is a link to the ILO document Conducting Enterprise Surveys during the COVID 19 crisis:https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_emp/---emp_ent/documents/instructionalmaterial/wcms_741012.pdfcheersmary
Mary Morgan
225-7575 Duncan Street
Powell River, BC  V8A 5L1
Cell: 604-314-8376
Email: maryinpr@gmail.com

On Apr 20, 2020, at 7:09 AM, Noor Alam Khan <[Hidden email]> wrote:
Dear MiC'ers,
I hope you are well during these terrible times. I am throwing up a question for discussion here. Though discussions are happening in this group and elsewhere this is a bit different. 

The pandemic has also disrupted the food systems in general and the market systems actors in critical food market systems are unable to efficiently function and deliver safe and nutritious food and create livelihood opportunities during the pandemic and their ability to deliver these is under question in poor and emerging countries in the aftermath of the pandemic. This means there is a huge impact on people's nutrition and food security and their progression towards wellbeing.T

The scale of this pandemic, unlike other crisis, is unique and most the countries are locked down and the situation is continued. Many disruptions have already been seen in the market systems such as a sudden surge in demand due to mass panic buying, demand pattern changes for food, price crashes and price hikes, layoffs, food losses and wastes, restrictions and protectionist measures by countries and states within countries etc. Many businesses in the supply chains have already gone bankrupt and the informal supply chain in certain cases have stopped functioning due to fear of virus spread. The changes have a lot of meaning for the poor people associated with these supply chains as consumers or suppliers or workers. Governments have shown up to support market failures in this situation but their actions are more generic and may not be systemic to in support critical failures as the pandemic has impacted the whole economy. 

As mobility is restricted and the impact is at a massive scale, data collection is a big challenge. My question to you all is what appropriate research method can be effective to determine the impact on poor people in with respect to access to safe and nutritious food and livelihood.

One way could be to remotely interview critical actors in identified critical supply chains through remote interviews to assess the demand and supply variable such as prices, access to inputs and raw material, losses etc. in the critical stages of the supply chain including retail and wet markets, and analyse the data to determine the impact on the target groups. How effective this method could be and what analysis tools you would suggest in this regard to analyse data.
What data points would be critical especially secondary data to relate and drawing conclusions? What other methods can be applied?
Please note, I am aware of the EMMA tools and understand their usability in an emergency situation. In this context, the EMMA tool is not very much helpful. The other available tools are more direct delivery emergency response assessment and thus not suitable for the market context.
Looking forward to your valuable inputs

Noor Alam Khan
Private Sector Development Professional
Pakistan
+92346-9405559

--
Karri Goeldner ByrneSenior Market Systems Advisorkarri.byrne@gmail.comskype: kgoeldner         LinkedIn

24 Apr 2020, 8:43 p.m.

Tony Taylor

Hello Noor

You could try using KoBoToolbox as the data collection and analysis tool- it has the advantage that it will do a lot of the analysis automatically if the questions are chosen carefully, and it is easy to share both the collection questionnaire and the data online. The final filtering and cleaning of data can be done using Excel or a similar tool since it exports the data collected as a spreadsheet.

It is available at
https://kobo.humanitarianresponse.info/

If you have not used it before you will need to create an account, but it is free to use and relatively simple.

Tony

Tony Taylor

[Hidden email]
+44 7771 961 446
+353 86 082 1732 (What’sApp)

Skype: tonytea

21 Apr 2020, 3:49 p.m.

[Hidden email]

Great resource Mary! It reminded me about this guidance on doing phone
surveys, which came up in an M&E webinar I attended:
https://www.povertyactionlab.org/blog/3-20-20/best-practices-conducting-phone-surveys.
Might be useful with other resources too...
Karri

21 Apr 2020, 1:20 p.m.

Mary Morgan

P.S.
Here is a link to the ILO document Conducting Enterprise Surveys during the COVID 19 crisis:
https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_emp/---emp_ent/documents/instructionalmaterial/wcms_741012.pdf <https: www.ilo.org="" wcmsp5="" groups="" public="" ---ed_emp="" ---emp_ent="" documents="" instructionalmaterial="" wcms_741012.pdf="">
cheers
mary

Mary Morgan
225-7575 Duncan Street
Powell River, BC V8A 5L1
Cell: 604-314-8376
Email: [Hidden email] <mailto:[Hidden email]>

21 Apr 2020, 1:20 p.m.

Mary Morgan

Dear Noor
The challenges across the globe are well articulated with your posting below. Even in /Canada, the supply chains are a mess. We have farmers dumping milk and crops rotting in the fields because they are not getting to market. And then in the grocery stores the shelves are empty for many items, and scarce or low supply for others. Pakistan is not alone.

I wonder if your question is the appropriate question in this circumstance. “what is the impact of covid on poor people in with respect to access to safe and nutritious food and livelihood.” You say that you want data to determine the demand and supply variables such as prices, access to inputs and raw material, losses etc. in the critical stages of the supply chain including retail and wet markets, and analyze the data to determine the impact on the target groups. It seems to me that your question and what you want to find out are not aligned. It seems you want to draw conclusions from your research that determines in the end what is the impact on poor people. I see your question as two questions. It might be more effective to do a social network analysis with questions to actors regarding who were they selling to/purchasing from before covid and who are they selling to/purchasing from during covid ? This modelling will demonstrate how the network has contracted and between who. you might even discover some behaviours that open up opportunities For heaven’s sake, Bezos who owns amazon has increased his profit by 38 billion since covid started! Greed is a big part, but also his business model fits perfectly in this context of social distancing.
I wonder if you look at what can the poor do to improve their inclusion in the weak and faltering markets?

Your statement: the informal supply chain in certain cases have stopped functioning due to fear of virus spread, is very important. The virus spread is done through coughing and spreading through the spittle that comes out. And touching our faces, hence lots of hand washing. Markets are complex systems, and here we have the sector of health impacting dramatically on all of us, just as AIDS did in Africa in the 1990’s and 2000’s. Education and de stigmatizing helped tremendously. Are NGO’s integrating health practices into market development? At this point in time we have to do this. Just as we incorporated dealing with AIDS in development, and continue to adapt to climate change in all of our new programs because that is what is happening. WE have to adapt to the virus. The virus has adapted very well to human behaviour.

Home made masks will not protect the wearer, as the coronavirus is so small that it can move through the material— BUT, the wearer mitigates spread because their spittle does not travel 6 feet or even 1 foot. It seems to me that mobilizing women to make face masks is a good mitigation practice that would then permit people to work and make purchases. I’ve attached some designs for making masks- very simple and effective. That is happening here in Canada.
In South Africa <https: oxfamblogs.org="" fp2p="" covid-advocacy-in-south-africas-shanty-towns-what-works=""/>, with the cheek to jowl living circumstances in the shanty towns, they have started to monitor if clean water is available in the townships. Would it be possible to also take this further and ensure that hand washing stations are set up in regular intervals throughout densely populated areas? IF WE in the INGO world start to implement these practices in the villages we are working in and in the neighbourhoods where many poor people are concentrated who CANNOT do social distancing, then behaviour change is possible. As in South AFrica, NGOs can work with governments on this.

If people had masks and the ability to wash their hands frequently, the risk will reduce tremendously, the curve will flatten and people will be able to earn some money.

You say that Governments have shown up to support market failures. What are they doing to support market failures? Is there a way to coordinate with them to get masks and hand washing stands out in informal sector clusters?

Whatever your research question is, remote/virtual interviews are a valid research methodology as John also indicated in his response.
If you are going to do research, set it up to discover, not reenforce what we all know, the poor are screwed now. Your research is a mechanism to discover what adaptations can be made to permit people to earn a living, participate in the economy all the while mitigating the spread of the virus. If you want we can have a call to come up with some research questions that would get you the information you need to assist your clients in mitigating hunger due to no access to supply.

Nice to see your post Noor
cheers
Mary

Mary Morgan
225-7575 Duncan Street
Powell River, BC V8A 5L1
Cell: 604-314-8376
Email: [Hidden email] <mailto:[Hidden email]>

21 Apr 2020, 1 p.m.

[Hidden email]

Noor Alam,
These are great questions, and very similar to those being pondered by the
folks looking at the Minimum Economic Recovery Standards (MERS) and how
they should be used in this new context.

I think you are right that systems approaches will be even more important
than they were before (and they were pretty important before). As we often
say on MiC, *you need to be clear about what data you want to gather before
anyone can advise you on the approaches*. Several of the pieces of EMMA can
still be used -- as you suggested by making phone calls, rather than visits
to businesses -- but it will depend on what info you are trying to gather.
EMMA is best for looking at *market system issues*, and other tools will be
more appropriate for understanding *market monitoring*, which is another
thing you speak about. The MARKiT Tool (
https://www.crs.org/sites/default/files/tools-research/markit-price-monitoring-analysis-response-kit.pdf)
is good for that. Still other tools will be most appropriate for
determining financial service needs (such as payout of savings groups or
delayed loan payments).

Your research question is a bit too broad at the moment: "the impact on
poor people in with respect to access to safe and nutritious food and
livelihood", so think about making it specific to a certain kind of person
(smallholder farmer, youth, women) or a certain location. Think about what
you really want to know about the impact -- what do you mean by impact
*exactly*?" Once you have that specificity, it will be easier to pick the
tools that are most likely to answer your questions.

Overall however, you are right, it will take tremendous coordination from
all of us to address this emergency. It is critical that we share data in
new ways. So once you do know exactly the kinds of impact you are
interested in, for whom, and where, then do some online research to see if
anyone has already begun gathering that data (or similar, so that you can
(potentially) copy their methodologies).

I hope that is helpful,
Karri

20 Apr 2020, 4:34 p.m.

John Hoven

One method builds on your interview proposal:
“... remotely interview critical actors in identified critical supply
chains ... in the critical stages of the supply chain ...”

The key here is to recognize that you don’t know in advance which actors,
supply chains, and stages are critical. Discovering that is your most
urgent priority. So every interview is followed by a quick review: What
have we learned? Who should we interview next, and what should we ask
about? Most of the interview time should be reserved for follow-up
questions, because that’s how you get answers to the questions you hadn’t
thought to ask: What do you mean? Can you give me an example?

At the same time, working hand in hand with the interviewing, another
method aims to rapidly develop and test a predictive theory of
cause-and-effect in a local context (one-of-a-kind situation, sample size
of one, no control group) where the unknowns are unknown (but discoverable
through follow-up questions). This is process tracing, a well-established
qualitative method, stripped down to the basics for use as a rapid,
predictive tool by unskilled analysts. Think of it as a Theory of Change
that evolves rapidly as you learn.

I am beginning to assemble a small group to develop these tools, and
discover what else is needed to make them work. If you think you might be
interested, email me at [Hidden email] and we’ll set up a Skype/Zoom
call.

John Hoven

20 Apr 2020, 2:08 p.m.

Noor Alam Khan

Dear MiC'ers,
I hope you are well during these terrible times. I am throwing up a question for discussion here. Though discussions are happening in this group and elsewhere this is a bit different. 

The pandemic has also disrupted the food systems in general and the market systems actors in critical food market systems are unable to efficiently function and deliver safe and nutritious food and create livelihood opportunities during the pandemic and their ability to deliver these is under question in poor and emerging countries in the aftermath of the pandemic. This means there is a huge impact on people's nutrition and food security and their progression towards wellbeing.T

The scale of this pandemic, unlike other crisis, is unique and most the countries are locked down and the situation is continued. Many disruptions have already been seen in the market systems such as a sudden surge in demand due to mass panic buying, demand pattern changes for food, price crashes and price hikes, layoffs, food losses and wastes, restrictions and protectionist measures by countries and states within countries etc. Many businesses in the supply chains have already gone bankrupt and the informal supply chain in certain cases have stopped functioning due to fear of virus spread. The changes have a lot of meaning for the poor people associated with these supply chains as consumers or suppliers or workers. Governments have shown up to support market failures in this situation but their actions are more generic and may not be systemic to in support critical failures as the pandemic has impacted the whole economy. 

As mobility is restricted and the impact is at a massive scale, data collection is a big challenge. My question to you all is what appropriate research method can be effective to determine the impact on poor people in with respect to access to safe and nutritious food and livelihood.

One way could be to remotely interview critical actors in identified critical supply chains through remote interviews to assess the demand and supply variable such as prices, access to inputs and raw material, losses etc. in the critical stages of the supply chain including retail and wet markets, and analyse the data to determine the impact on the target groups. How effective this method could be and what analysis tools you would suggest in this regard to analyse data.
What data points would be critical especially secondary data to relate and drawing conclusions? What other methods can be applied?
Please note, I am aware of the EMMA tools and understand their usability in an emergency situation. In this context, the EMMA tool is not very much helpful. The other available tools are more direct delivery emergency response assessment and thus not suitable for the market context.
Looking forward to your valuable inputs

Noor Alam Khan
Private Sector Development Professional
Pakistan
+92346-9405559