Programme profile

PSP4H: Private Sector Innovation Programme for Health

Programme Index Listing

Main implementer
Cardno Emerging Markets
Other implementers
Insight Health Advisors (IHA), Oxford Policy Management (OPM) and Mannion Daniels (MD)
2013 - 2016
Total budget
US $ 5.8 million
Annual budget
US $1.3 million

To improve the for-profit health market in Kenya, so that poor people get better value for money they spend on health.

Market systems and intervention

Health financing/insurance

Afya Poa intervention (Micro health insurance)

  • Our partner, Jawabu Empowering, provides affordable consumer healthcare finance products to informal sector workers through their existing associations (jua kali)
  • Health savings are managed through a mobile wallet called KashPoa
  • Support to a chain of private clinics that serve the working poor to experiment with marketing techniques to determine which is the most effective in attracting and retaining customers for their clinics. 

Non-communicable diseases

Asthma Care Improvement Project (ACIP) – Glaxo SmithKline (GSK) Pharmaceuticals (Kenya)

  • We address low uptake of GSK’s new product for asthma relief for the mass market/low income population
  • We intend to increase access to quality and affordable asthma medicines to over 400,000 consumers

Supply chain/private healthcare networks

Pharmnet intervention

  • A commercial retail model organises independent private pharmacies owned by registered Kenya Pharmaceutical Association (KPA) members into a network under a common brand, with access to reliable and affordable essential medicines from quality assured suppliers

Labnet intervention

  • Access to reliable diagnostic testing facilities is among the major challenges in Kenya
  • PSP4H is working with Association of Kenya Laboratory and Scientific Officers (AKMLSO) to strengthen the laboratory system in Kenya through development of a branded laboratory network called Labnet

Docnet intervention

  • A clearly identifiable place to access quality healthcare at an affordable price - organises the independent physicians market
  • A branded network owned by the Kenya Medical Association (KMA) with opportunities for standardizing quality, mitigating unfair competition from unqualified market players, and offering value for money to consumers

Low cost delivery models

Livewell Clinics Ltd

  • A woman-owned network of 14 private primary care facilities in working class neighborhoods around Nairobi, offering high-quality low-cost healthcare with in-house clinical officers, pharmacies, and labs
  • Piloting an innovative 'quick intervention' action research model

City Eye Hospital

  • City Eye Hospital is a full-service eye clinic serving both low- and high-end, replicating India’s successful Aravind Eye Hospital cross-subsidy model in Kenya

Tanaka Nursing Home

  • Demand creation is a systemic problem in most private hospitals, especially those targeting the working poor
  • Pilot: A community outreach programme (quick intervention model) designed to improve utilization of the for-profit health provider, increasing access

Business skills training

  • Healthcare professionals in Kenya typically receive only clinical training and are not educated in how to run a successful healthcare business
  • Low cost model delivering skills upgrade on cash management, inventory management and customer care piloted to over 200 private clinics in the Tunza network as well as to pharmaceutical technologists, laboratory technologists and private midwives

Public private partnerships

Customer care - Kisii County

  • Poor customer care service is the primary reason patients avoid seeking healthcare. Through bringing a private sector model to public services, Kisii Teaching and Referral Hospital will achieve customer care improvement.

Maternal newborn and child health (MNCH)

Private community midwives – Kilifi County

  • Private community midwives are retired health providers (nurse/midwives, clinical officers) living among communities and providing maternal and child health services at a price
  • Intervention pilots the feasibility of increasing access to maternal health services through networking of Private Community Midwives in Kilifi County in partnership with the county government

Jacaranda Health

  • PSP4H is supporting Jacaranda Health to address the challenge of low facility deliveries in addition to low ANC-to-delivery conversion, and subsequently service sustainability
  • Conducted health market research to understand the community perception of maternal and child health among low-income populations in Nairobi, developed strategic marketing plan


  • Kenya Pharmaceutical Association: 323 independent pharmacies have paid franchise fees to join the Pharmnet network of branded retail pharmacies and 156 more have been trained on network standards and are being inducted into the network; 250 have branded their pharmacies in Nairobi and Mombasa and five additional counties. Pooled procurement of essential medicines is running commercially under KPA subsidiary Nairobi TechPharm. Pharmnet is already the second largest pharmacy network in Africa.
  • Jawabu: The Afya Poa low-cost healthcare finance product has been launched into the market, a network of jua kali champions has been trained, the initial provider network has been trained, the IT system has been shaken down and Jawabu has begun selling policies to working-class consumers through jua kali groups.
  • Private Kilifi county midwives: Private midwives formed a network in Kilifi County and business skills training undertaken
  • Population Service Kenya / Tunza Clinics: 170 of Tunza’s 325 clinics have implemented customer service improvements as well as better financial recordkeeping and inventory management practices following business skills training.
  • GSK: Asthma Care Improvement Project has partnered with AMREF Health Africa, Pharmnet, Livewell clinics, National and County Government and KAPTLD to implement asthma centres of excellence, funded by GSK after PSP4H used catalytic funding to undertake market research. Privatization of development partner health intervention.
  • City Eye Hospital, Nairobi, opened its Upper Hill clinic where Aravind model low-cost cataract surgeries are currently being offered.

Updated June 2016