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Published by
Monitor Inclusive Markets
Project implementer
Population Services International (PSI)/India
Gates Foundation
Supporting Sustainable Sanitation Improvements (3SI)
Results level
Mixed method
Data source
Intervention types
Improved access to finance
Improved access to information
Improved input supply
Improved marketing of products
Improved product / service quality
Improved value chain coordination

The Supporting Sustainable Sanitation Improvements (3SI) project in Bihar works to increase access to, and use of, improved sanitation facilities and services through market-based suppliers. 

Lack of sanitation is an acute issue in India, where close to 600 million people defecate in the open and 67 per cent of rural households do not have toilets. 84 per cent of households surveyed in Bihar indicated their desire for a toilet.

Intervention description

The paper outlines 3Sis experience in establishing the fact that there is demand for better sanitation and toilets in India.

It highlights the need of a long-term permanent market-based solution to meet sanitation needs.

Evidence methodology

This Report has been prepared based on publicly available information (various secondary researches) as well as 3SI’s own primary research.