This review was produced at the request of FCDO and examines the impacts of protracted conflict on livelihoods and food security of affected populations. It assesses evidence of the effectiveness of measures to mitigate harmful impacts on livelihoods.
11 cases of protracted conflict were chosen, most of them current in 2021: Afghanistan; Darfur, Sudan; eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC); Mali; Nepal (ended in 2006); north-east Nigeria; Somalia; South Sudan; Syria; northern Uganda (ended in 2006); and Yemen.
Two overall questions are addressed:
- how has protracted conflict affected the livelihoods and food security of individuals and households, and local and national economies?
- how does protracted conflict affect the functioning of local and national markets?
- how does protracted conflict potentially affect the livelihoods security, including food security, of those directly and indirectly affected by conflict?
- how do these impacts vary by gender?
- what responses to economic and social harm caused by protracted conflict have been used? What is the evidence for their effectiveness in building resilience, mitigating loss, or enhancing, the welfare - incomes and food security - of those affected, and in what circumstances?
The review underlines the importance of flexible and adaptive programme management; supporting livelihoods; and when providing relief, cash almost always is better than aid in kind.