Published by
Institute of Development Studies (IDS)

Systemic change is universally desirable and poorly defined. This article seeks to refine a practitioner-developed framework – Adopt-Adapt-Expand-Respond (AAER) – for conceptualising systemic change, and offers case studies to demonstrate its utility in planning for and measuring such change. 

To do so, the article seeks to:

  • define the nature of a system and the components of change within that system
  • discusses the relevance of behaviour change among both actors and institutions in conceptualising systemic change
  • explore the utility of AAER throughout the implementation of development interventions, examining the role of the framework in adaptive management: utilising data on observed changes to alter programme intervention tactics

This article is from the IDS Bulletin Vol. 53 No. 1 (2022)