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This report examines fertiliser usage in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, addressing the challenges of both overuse and underuse of mineral fertilisers in relation to  the Commercial Agriculture for Smallholders and Agribusiness (CASA) programme.

It introduces alternative products (such as green ammonia, organic, and biological products), as well as new technologies and business models that can enhance fertiliser use efficiency.

The report underscores the roles of governments, investors, donors, and private firms in promoting these alternative strategies.

Key recommendations include supporting the development of modular green ammonia production, financing infrastructure for products aimed at smallholders, and backing technologies that reduce fertiliser information costs.